Ensure Sustainable Consumption And Production Patterns - The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 12

The UN explains: "Sustainable consumption and production is about promoting resource and energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure, and providing access to basic services, green and decent jobs, and a better quality of life for all. Its implementation helps to achieve overall development plans, reduce future economic, environmental and social costs, strengthen economic competitiveness and reduce poverty."

Definitions of and indicators for sustainable resource consumption are currently limited, as shown in the data available below.

The UN has defined 11 Targets and 13 Indicators for SDG 12. Targets specify the goals and Indicators represent the metrics by which the world aims to track whether these Targets are achieved. Below we quote the original text of all Targets and show the data on the agreed Indicators.

How is the world doing on this goal?

Posted  updated 1 year ago

Target 12.1: Implement the 10-year sustainable consumption and production framework

UN definition: "Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries."

Sustainable consumption and production action plans - SDG Indicator 12.1.1

Definition: Indicator 12.1.1 is the "number of countries with sustainable consumption and production (SCP) national action plans or SCP mainstreamed as a priority or a target into national policies".



Goal: "Implement the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns" with all countries taking action by 2030.

Target 12.2: Sustainable management and use of natural resources

UN definition: "By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources."

Material footprint - SDG Indicator 12.2.1

Definition: Indicator 12.2.1 is "material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP".





Material Footprint (MF) is the quantity of material extraction that is required to meet the consumption of a country. The total material footprint is the sum of the material footprint for biomass, fossil fuels, metal ores, and non-metal ores.

The definition or target level of the sustainable material footprint is not defined. Data on material footprints are outdated and unavailable for the years following 2010.

Goal: "By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources".

Domestic material consumption - SDG Indicator 12.2.2

Definition: Indicator 12.2.2 is "domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP".





Material Footprint (MF) is the quantity of material extraction that is required to meet the consumption of a country. The total material footprint is the sum of the material footprint for biomass, fossil fuels, metal ores, and non-metal ores.

Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) is a production-side measure that does not account for supply chain inputs or exports, meaning a country could have a lower DMC value if it outsources a large proportion of its materials.

The definition or target level of sustainable material consumption is not defined. Data on consumption is outdated and unavailable for the years following 2010.

Goal: "By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources".

Target 12.3: Halve global per capita food waste

UN definition: "By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses."


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